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Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

The Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) test examines developmental effects on transmission through the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The development of vertebrates is mainly controlled by thyroid hormones. These hormones are especially important during the early stages of central nervous system development. Deficits during this sensitive period are irreversible and cause lasting damage to physical and mental development. Therefore, it is important to recognize exogenous influences on the thyroid hormone system to avoid compromising "normal development". The test organism for the AMA test is Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed frog. Xenopus laevis is routinely cultured in laboratories around the world and is readily available through commercial suppliers. Breeding can be induced year-round using human chorionic gonadotropin injections, and tadpoles are readily available. Our team of experts is highly trained in collecting and preparing samples for the AMA. We use standardized protocols and techniques to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Our Services

Our team uses a range of statistical techniques to analyze the data, including analysis of variance, regression analysis and multivariate analysis. We provide detailed morphological analysis of Xenopus laevis to assess effects of the test chemicals on their development. The following parameters need to be measured during AMA test.

  • Hind limb length
  • Snout to vent length
  • Developmental stage
  • Wet weight
  • Thyroid histology
  • Daily observations of mortality

Our Test Process of AMA

We perform four replicates of each test treatment. For all treatment groups, the larval density at the start of the test is 20 tadpoles per test pond.

  • Xenopus tadpoles are exposed to at least three different concentrations of test chemicals and water controls in a flow-through system for 21 days.
  • At the start of the study, the tadpoles are at developmental stage 51, approximately two weeks after hatching.
  • On day 7 of the study, around the time the thyroid gland began to function, five individual tadpoles are removed and assessed for developmental stage. The remaining tadpoles are maintained in the test system for an additional 14 days.
  • On day 21, when the tadpoles have a fully functioning thyroid gland and are able to secrete thyroid hormones, the study is terminated, and data is collected.

Our Advantages

  • Professional knowledge
    Our team of experts is well-trained and experienced in AMA tests. We have an in-depth understanding of assay methods and the factors that can affect their sensitivity and reliability.
  • Technology
    We use cutting-edge technology in our AMA research to ensure the highest levels of accuracy and reliability. Our facilities include state-of-the-art imaging systems, microscopy, and histology equipment.

CD BioSciences is a professional service provider for the marine biology industry. Our AMA test services can ensure that the most suitable methods and techniques are selected for your project. We provide our customers with the most precise ingredient data and highly informed process expertise. Our team of biomass experts plays a key role in the formulation, optimization and commercial evaluation of biomass value-added processes in industry and academia. If necessary, please feel free to contact us.

Please kindly note that our services can only be used to support research purposes (Not for clinical use).

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