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Isolation of Marine Polyether Toxins

The chemical structure of marine biotoxins is very special, and the chemical structures of various toxins vary greatly. Among them, polyether toxin is the marine toxin with the most outstanding research progress in recent years. It is a natural toxin with a unique chemical structure, strong toxicity, and wide pharmacological effects. There are more than 100 polyether toxoids. Polyether toxins can be divided into 3 categories according to their chemical properties: aliphatic chain polyether toxins, macrolide polyether toxins, and ladder-shaped polyether toxins. The main representative toxins are matiotxin, ciguatoxin, and palytoxin. Research on polyether toxoids provides chemical and life sciences with information that is difficult to obtain from terrestrial natural products. Polyether toxoids are expected to play an important role in the development of new cardiovascular and antitumor drugs. In addition, the maturity of microbial isolation, culture, transformation, and fermentation technology has made it possible to obtain a large number of toxins, while the development of genetic engineering methods and biochemistry has made it easier for researchers to transform and utilize relatively small toxins.

Antiprotozoal activities of marine polyether triterpenoids.Fig. 1 Antiprotozoal activities of marine polyether triterpenoids. (Diaz-Marrero A R, et al., 2019)

Our Services

Marine polyether toxoids have attracted the attention of natural product chemists as well as synthetic chemists, biochemists, and pharmacologists, because of their complex structures and very powerful biological actions. With years of experience in marine natural products studying, CD BioSciences provides one-stop services for our clients, whether they need the isolation of polyether toxoids, activity testing, or structural characterization. Our services are listed as follows, but are not limited to:

  • Palytoxin (PTX) isolation
  • Maitotoxin (MTX) isolation
  • Ciguatoxin (CTX) isolation
  • Yessotoxin (YTXs) isolation
  • Brevetoxin (BTX) isolation
  • Azaspira acid (AZA) isolation
  • Okadaic acid (OA) isolation

Our Sources of Polyether Toxins

Our marine polyether toxins are isolated from unicellular eukaryotic algae, mainly dinoflagellates, which are primary producers in marine food webs.

Polyether Toxins Sources
PTX Palvthora toxicus, P·vestitus, P·mamillosa, P·caribaeorum
MTX Gambierdiscus toxicus
CTX Gambierdiscus toxicus
YTXs Lingulodinium polyedrum, Gonyaulax spinifera
BTX Karenia brevis
AZA Azadinium spinosum
OA Dinoflagellates

Our Marine Polyether Toxins Analysis Techniques

Isolation of Marine Polyether Toxins

Commonly used marine polyether toxins analysis methods are mainly divided into biological detection and chemical detection methods and other special detection methods, mainly including mouse biological assay, rat bioassay, gas chromatography, fluorescence detection liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cytotoxicity detection technology, etc.

CD BioSciences is a professional service provider for the marine biology industry. Our isolation services of polyether toxins can ensure that the most suitable methods and techniques are selected for your project. We provide our customers with the most precise ingredient data and highly informed process expertise. Our team of biomass experts plays a key role in the formulation, optimization and commercial evaluation of biomass value-added processes in industry and academia. If necessary, please feel free to contact us.


  1. Diaz-Marrero A R, López-Arencibia A, Bethencout-Estrella C J, et al. Antiprotozoal activities of marine polyether triterpenoids[J]. Bioorganic Chemistry, 2019, 92: 103276.

Please kindly note that our services can only be used to support research purposes (Not for clinical use).

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